M1 cannon

Nicknamed "Long Tom" an appellation with a long and storied history in U. Developed to replace the Canon de mm GPFthe gun was deployed as a heavy field weapon during World War II and the Korean Warand also classed as secondary armament for seacoast defense.

To address this problem a number of foreign heavy artillery guns were adopted, including the Canon de mm GPF. After the end of the war the Westervelt Board was convened to assess the artillery experience of the combatant powers and map out future directions for the US Army artillery. The conclusion of the board vis-a-vis heavy field artillery was that the French mm GPF should be adopted as the standard heavy field piece but further development work should occur to achieve a heavy field gun with a max.

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This type of breech used an interrupted-thread breech plug with a lock that opened and closed the breech by moving a single lever. The shell is lifted into position behind the breech and then rammed into the chamber to engage the shell's rotating band into the barrel rifling.

Ramming the shell home is followed by loading a number of powder bags, as required for the desired range. Once the powder is loaded, the breech plug is closed and locked, and a primer is placed in the breech plug's firing mechanism. After setting the elevation and azimuth, the gun is ready to fire. The firing mechanism is a device for initiating the ammunition primer.

The primer then sets off the igniter which ignites the propelling charge of the ammunition.

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A continuous-pull lanyard first cocks the firing pin, then fires the primer when pulled. The gun was developed into M1A1 and M2 variants. The gun carriage provides a stable, yet mobile, base for the gun. The new split-trail carriage featured an eight-wheel integral two-axle bogie and a two-wheel limber that supported the trails for transport. The carriage was a two-piece design.

How M1 Tanks Work

The upper carriage included the side frames with trunnion bearings that supported the recoil mechanism that carried the gun cradle, slide and gun tube. The upper carriage also incorporated the elevating and azimuth gearing. The upper carriage pivoted in azimuth on the lower carriage. The lower carriage included the transport suspension and the split-trail that stabilized and absorbed recoil when the gun was fired.

After the gun was placed in a firing position with the gun pointing in the desired direction, the trails were lowered to the ground and the limber was removed. The carriage wheels would then be raised using built-in ratcheting screw-jacks, lowering the gun carriage to the ground.

Once on the ground, the limber-end of the trail legs were separated to form a wide "vee" with its apex at the center of the carriage pivot point. A recoil spade at the limber-end of each trail leg required a correctly positioned hole to be dug for the spade, which was attached to the trail end, to transmit the recoil from gun carriage through the trails and into the earth.

This made the gun very stable and assisted its accuracy. The removable spades were transported in brackets on the trail legs. The carriage M1 and M2 were shared with the 8 inch Howitzer M1differing only in the gun tube, sleigh, cradle, recoil and equilibrators, weight due to the heavier barrel. Eventually it equipped about 49 battalionsincluding 40 in the European Theater and 7 in the Pacific.Tanks portal.

There are three main operational Abrams versions, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, with each new iteration seeing improvements in armament, protection, and electronics. Efforts to develop an M1A3 version were first publicly disclosed in The resulting design, the MBTincorporated new technologies across the board. A hydropneumatic suspension provided excellent cross-country ride quality and also allowed the entire tank to be raised or lowered by the driver, with the lowest position placing the top of the tank only 6 feet 1.

While the design was highly capable, its weight continued to grow, as did its budget.

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Bythe unit cost stood at five times the original estimates. As a result of the problems with the MBT, the U. Army introduced the XM, using some technologies from the MBT but removing some of the more troublesome features. This succeeded only in producing an expensive system with capabilities similar to the M After several rounds of input, the decision was made to offer maximum armor to defeat the "heavy threat". To this end, a new design basis emerged in FebruaryLK It had to defeat any hit from a Soviet gun within meters and 30 degrees to either side.

Examining the experiences of the Yom Kippur War that year, a number of design changes were made. At the time, the US military's procurement system was beset with problems being caused by the desire to have the best possible design. This often resulted in the programs being canceled due to cost overruns, leaving the forces with outdated systems, as was the case with the MBT There was a strong movement within the Army to get a new design within budget to prevent the MBT experience from repeating itself.

Chrysler and GM entered bids. The Army was planning on introducing several new types of ammunition for the that would greatly improve its performance, notably, the XM using depleted uranium. These rounds would give it the performance needed to defeat any Soviet tank with ease.The M is aimed squarely at smartphone photographers looking to get their first 'real' camera, and its polished touch-centric control scheme reflects this.

It's small, it's light, and because of the large APS-C sensor, is almost always capable of better photos than any smartphone.

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Appropriately given the target audience, there's even a dedicated 'Wireless' button to make it as easy as possible to get your images from the M to the wilds of Facebook and Instagram. Although smartphones have largely decimated the compact camera segment, the EOS M is not without competition from other interchangeable lens cameras, all of which offer image quality above and beyond the typical smartphone camera.

The EOS M is among the least intimidating cameras in this group, for new users. It's got the fewest physical controls, and tapping to focus and manipulate settings on-screen in Auto mode is likely to come naturally to just about anyone who hasn't been under a rock since the first iPhone came out.

Based on the above table, it's clear that in the mirrorless interchangeable lens market, this price bracket is getting pretty crowded. There are several different philosophies represented in here. The Sony a has been around for a while but it continues to be a great value proposition. The GX is the only camera here to shoot 4K, and is slightly smaller than the M, but comes with a smaller M43 sensor, which has an impact on still image quality at medium and high ISO sensitivity settings.

Overall, then, is the image quality and user experience of Canon's most compact ILC enough to make it stand out in this crowd?

Let's find out. Not sure if they are going to last much longer, but these seem to be new cameras being sold as "refurb" at least mine is and looking over reviews, it seems, I'm not alone. Does M support the same lenses as my SL2? This M seems quite interesting!

As a beginner looking to take a step up from an iPhone, this is a great first camera at a reasonable price. Great quality and easy to use! Satisfied with my purchase! I had 5Dm3 but didn't like it, sold. And Also I am not a fun of Canon cameras, but this small M is nice camera, because of its really small and you looks like tourist with him, but you can use it in your professional work too, for candid shooting, etc I bought this camera.The 37 mm gun M1 was an anti-aircraft autocannon developed in the United States.

Two gun units were coupled to the M5 gun director using the M1 remote control system. The system was powered by the M5 generating unit. If the remote system was inoperative the M5 sighting system was used. The M1 utilized fixed ammunition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from 37mm Gun M1.

Type of Anti-aircraft autocannon. Anti-aircraft guns. Gander, Terry. New York: Arco Pub. Archived from the original on Retrieved Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. New York: Collier.

VI 8-inch gun M inch gun M inch coast defense mortar inch gun M inch gun M inch gun M inch gun M inch Marks 2 and 3 inch howitzer M VI 8-inch M inch coast defense mortar inch M Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Anti-aircraft autocannon. United States. John M. Browning and the Colt company. Therefore, direct comparison is often impossible. Nazi Germany. Soviet Union.

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United Kingdom. QF 2-pounder naval gun. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 37mm Gun M1.The "mm" designates that the cannon fires mm-wide rounds. Smoothbore guns don't stabilize rounds as well as rifled guns, but they can fire rounds at higher velocities without suffering heavy damage.

m1 cannon

The M fires a variety of training rounds and combat rounds. Its two main combat rounds, generally known as sabot and HEAT rounds for high-explosive anti-tankinflict damage in very different ways. Sabot rounds work like a basic arrow. They don't have any explosive power; they penetrate armor with shear momentum. The heart of the sabot round is the penetrator -- a narrow metal rod typically depleted uranium with a pointed nose on one end and stabilizing fins on the other.

Before the round is fired, the rear part of the penetrator is attached to a propellant case, and the front part is attached to the sabot structure. The sabot's purpose is to keep the narrow penetrator centered in the wide gun barrel. On firing, the propellant casing remains in the chamber, and the expanding gas pushes the sabot and attached penetrator down the barrel.

The sabot is attached to the penetrator with relatively flimsy plastic, so it falls away as soon as the round leaves the cannon. The heavy penetrator flies through the air at high speed toward its target tank.

Because of its narrow shape, the penetrator focuses its full force into a very small area, plowing straight through heavy armor. As the penetrator enters the tank, heated fragments of metal fly off in all directions, hitting anybody and anything inside.

HEAT rounds use explosive firepowerrather than momentum, to penetrate armor. At its nose, the round has an extended impact sensor. When the impact sensor collides with a target, it ignites an explosive, which melts surrounding copper. A shape charge liner concentrates the molten metal and hot gases into a narrow blast that cuts through the armor. The M1 also has three machine guns. It has a Browning. The coolest thing about the M1's weaponry is its advanced fire control system.The M61 and its derivatives have been the principal cannon armament of United States military fixed-wing aircraft for sixty years.

The M61 was originally produced by General Electric. After several mergers and acquisitions, it is currently produced by General Dynamics. The higher speeds of jet-powered fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire.

While captured German designs principally the Mauser MG C showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannonthe practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns.

37 mm gun M1

The Army wanted something better, combining an extremely high rate of fire with exceptional reliability. The new Air Force made a request for a new aircraft gun. A lesson of World War II air combat was that German, Italian, and Japanese fighters could attack American aircraft from long range with their cannon main armament. American fighters with. The 20 mm Hispano cannon carried by the P and Pwhile formidable against propeller-driven planes, had a relatively low rate of fire in the age of jets, while other cannons were notoriously unreliable.

In response to this requirement, the Armament Division of General Electric resurrected an old idea: the multi-barrel Gatling gun. The original Gatling gun had fallen out of favor because of the need for an external power source to rotate the barrel assembly, but the new generation of turbojet-powered fighters offered sufficient electric power to operate the gun, and electric operation was more reliable than gas-operated reloading.

The idea of powering a Gatling gun from an external electric power source was not a novel idea at the end of World War II, as Richard Jordan Gatling himself had done just that with a patent he filed in[4] with the similar, but powered either by the aircraft engine or an electric motor, barreled Fokker-Leimberger aircraft rotary machine gun under development during World War I by the German Empire.

Inthe Army issued General Electric a contract for "Project Vulcan", a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 7, rounds per minute rpm. These variants of the T45 were known as the T and T respectively and were first tested in The development of the Lockheed F Starfighter revealed that the T Vulcan later redesignated M61 suffered problems with its linked ammunitionbeing prone to misfeed and presenting a foreign object damage FOD hazard with discarded links.

A linkless ammunition feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1which subsequently became the standard cannon armament of U. After Martin's merger with Lockheedthe rotary cannon became the responsibility of Lockheed Martin Armament Systems. Lockheed Martin Armament Systems was later acquired by General Dynamicswho currently produce the M61 and its variants.

Each of the cannon's six barrels fires once in turn during each revolution of the barrel cluster.

76 mm gun M1

The multiple barrels provide both a very high rate of fire—around rounds per second—and contribute to prolonged weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. Mean time between jams or failures is in excess of 10, rounds, making it an extremely reliable weapon.

Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed. The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts.

The round is fired by an electric priming system where an electric current from a firing lead passes through the firing pin to the primer as each round is rotated into the firing position. The self-powered version, the GAU-4 called M in Army serviceis gas-operatedtapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the gun gas driven mechanism. The self-powered Vulcan weighs about 10 pounds 4.

The initial M61 used linked, belted ammunition, but the ejection of spent links created considerable and ultimately insuperable problems.

The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1with a linkless feed system. Depending on the application, the feed system can be either single-ended ejecting spent cases and unfired rounds or double-ended returning casings back to the magazine.

A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe. Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft.It was intended to implement some of the features being added on the M1E1 prototype and rush it into a production Abrams while some of the other planned features were undergoing further testing, such as the Rheinmetall mm cannon.

There were also studies that indicated the increasing lethality of Soviet ammunition, which led to the requirement for the M1E1 project to also increase the protection of the vehicle to withstand these new threats.

m1 cannon

There were also some improvements to the suspension and powerpack to accommodate the heavier turret and the rear side skirts were adjusted from field feedback. Fresh Production M1IP, note no unit markings.

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Weighing in at 55 tons, it had a high degree of mobility with a Honeywell AGTC multi-fuel turbine engine, generating hp and giving the tank a top speed of 45 mph The tank rolled on a torsion bar suspension with seven road wheels, with the drive sprocket at the rear and idler at the front. Orthographic view of an M1IP.

M61 Vulcan

The turret armor of the M1IP was one of the main upgrades over the standard Abrams, however, it is not easy to distinguish between the standard and upgraded versions. The frontal thickness of the turret was increased by the addition of a larger armor module. This larger module not only changed the visual features of the tank turret but also provided additional protection, improving it over the existing M1 standard.

This additional armor increased the total weight and altered the weight distribution, which lead to a need to reinforce the suspension and make adjustments to the powerpack in order to accommodate the roughly extra ton from the armor and new turret design.

The first generation side skirts on the Abrams covered roughly half the rear drive sprocket. This allowed mud to build up in the area and cause the tracks to come out of alignment.

m1 cannon

Several field modifications were done to alleviate the issue, ranging from cutting a portion of the rear skirt off or just fully removing the rear skirt segment.

The final solution was what we see on the current model Abrams, with the familiar smooth blended cut out around most of the drive sprocket. Rear side skirt comparison, illustrated by Perry Manley The original M1 Abrams also had issues with crew gear stowage, with limited space inside and the unpopular rear turret storage straps. This lead to the M1E1 project adding a rear turret bustle rack. This was also passed on to the M1IP and is probably one of the most recognizable features of the tank.

However, the one key feature that was not shared over time was the gun mantlet. This resulted in previous features being adjusted. The lifting bracket above the gun was originally a straight piece of metal, but on the M1IP, it featured a gooseneck shape. This is still seen today on the modern Abrams. Diagram of the M1 vs M1IP mantel. Source: Vodnik on armorama. The removal of the retainer ring off the drive sprocket was thought to also be a feature of the M1IP, but this is not entirely true, as there are images contradicting this claim.

This feature could simply be due to production changes from early to later models. M1IP on exercise in West Germany.

m1 cannon

This contest was intended to bring out excellence, camaraderie, and competition between the members of the alliance. The competition would slowly evolve from just stationary gunnery to a more realistic simulation of combat conditions, including driving skills and the ability to fight as a combat unit.

Each nation was invited to place a team or several of what would be equal to a tank company of four platoons of three vehicles 12 vehicles in total as their representatives.

The scoring of the competition was based on a formula that used main gun hits on targets, machine gun hits on targets, time it took to complete a run, ammunition remaining, and shots off target.

The winner of the competition, based on the highest score, would receive the Silver Centurion Trophy based off a Canadian Centurion and would host the trophy the next time around usually every 2 years. The last of these competitions was held in

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